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Application of Laser Cutting Technology in Solar Cell Manufacturing

Application of Laser Cutting Technology in Solar Cell Manufacturing

  • Categories:Product analysis
  • Author:Tianhong laser
  • Origin:Tianhong laser
  • Time of issue:2023-11-16 15:36
  • Views:

(Summary description)

Application of Laser Cutting Technology in Solar Cell Manufacturing

(Summary description)

  • Categories:Product analysis
  • Author:Tianhong laser
  • Origin:Tianhong laser
  • Time of issue:2023-11-16 15:36
  • Views:
Information

1Laser Cutting technology VS solar cells

With the trend of global primary energy shortage becoming more and more severe, the development and utilization of clean energy has become an urgent problem for all industries in the world. Solar cells are a device that can convert light energy into electricity, mainly silicon-based solar cells, which can effectively reduce environmental pollution and the crisis of energy consumption. 

Solar cells are divided into compound solar cells, silicon solar cells, organic thin-film solar cells and dye-sensitized solar cells according to the different materials used in the production of solar cells, of which silicon solar cells are used in a wide range of applications, and therefore are subdivided into polycrystalline silicon solar cells, monocrystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells.

As one of the important application technologies in the industrial field, laser cutting technology plays a very important role in the field of solar cells. Compared with other processing processes, laser cutting technology is more efficient, which on the one hand improves the reliability of the process, and on the other hand reduces the production cost. These advantages are fully reflected in the production of crystalline silicon solar cells and thin film solar cell manufacturing.

2Application and advantages of the technology in the solar cell industry

As one of the clean, non-polluting and renewable sources of energy, solar cells promote the rapid development of the photovoltaic industry and play a very important role in the development of the photovoltaic industry. There are many types of solar cells, according to the material, there are silicon-based solar cells (monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous), etc. At present, crystalline silicon solar cells are the main products in the photovoltaic market, with a conversion rate cap of up to 20 percent. In the manufacturing process of crystalline silicon solar cells, laser cutting technology is mainly used for cutting wafer cutting and scribing cutting and so on.

Compared with traditional methods, laser cutting technology has unique advantages, which are mainly manifested in the following points

  1. High cutting precision, narrow kerf, good quality, smaller heat affected zone, and flat and smooth cutting end surface;

2Fast cutting speed and high processing efficiency;

3It is a kind of non-contact processing, there is no mechanical processing force, which will not produce deformation. And there is no processing chips, oil, noise and other pollution problems, is a kind of green processing;

4Great cutting ability to cut almost any material.

Mainstream application of laser cutting on solar cells cutting and scribing

Scribing silicon wafers with a laser is currently a more advanced technology. The principle of which is to use the laser as a cutting and scribing tool, also use the principle of material vaporization. A focused laser beam irradiates the material to be processed and then moves the workpiece, which is then cut and scribed by the laser in the direction of movement as the material is removed by vaporization.

Characteristics of laser cutting and scribing

  1. The laser can be focused into a very small spot and can draw very fine lines.
  1. The cutting depth is 2 to 3 times larger and controllable, greatly improving the yield rate of cutting.
  2. Non-contact processing, the wafer action time and action range is small, the heat-affected zone is small, which will not be subject to mechanical stress and cracks.  

4Fast slicing speed greatly improves productivity, which is suitable for self-control inline, reducing production costs.

5Capable of scribing semiconductor boards coated with a protective layer.

 

Silicon Wafer Cutting

Wafer cutting is one of the more critical processes in the production of monocrystalline silicon cells. Industrial production of silicon cells used in monocrystalline silicon materials are generally monocrystalline silicon rods, the original shape of the cylindrical, need to be cut into square wafers, usually use wire cutting to slice. 

What are the shortcomings of traditional wire cutting, compared to laser cutting?

Generally speaking, with wire cutting, the silicon wafer is cut with large thickness and poor cutting flatness. Moreover, since silicon is a brittle material, contact processing is prone to rupture of edges. In addition, there will be a mechanical damage layer consisting of elastic strain zone, dislocation network zone and broken crystal zone on the silicon surface. The yield is low, the loss of raw material is large, and it may even cause hidden cracks, affect the electrical parameters and other hazards.

Use laser precision cutting technology to replace wire cutting, due to its non-contact processing, no stress, so the cutting edge of the flat steam is without damage and will not damage the wafer structure. Electrical parameters are better than the mechanical cutting method, so as to improve the yield and reduce costs. At the same time, the slit width is small with high precision and laser power is adjustable. The application of laser precision cutting technology can control the cutting thickness, so that it may be possible to realize the thinning of solar cells.

Other prospects for precision laser cutting technology in solar cells

The power and area of the solar cell are directly proportional to each other, and the area and number of slices required can be calculated according to the required voltage and power. Due to the certain size of the solar cell, when the area can not meet the needs of the solar cell, the solar cell to be scribed and sliced. And scribing and cutting is an irreversible process that can not be recovered. Once the problem occurs the whole solar cell sheet may be partially or completely scrapped. In addition, the width of the scribe line has an important impact on the performance of the solar cell, the line width may be short-circuited when the line width is low, and the line width is high when the shading loss is large. Laser precision cutting technology can be applied to large-area cells for scribing and cutting, which can accurately control the cutting accuracy and thickness, further reduce the cutting debris, and improve the utilization rate of the battery. At present, laser precision cutting technology is widely used in the field of solar cells.

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